Connecticut obtains liberal Charter for lands to the South Seas.
Dutch surrender to the Duke of York; Dutch territory becomes the Province of New York
When the second Pequot War (known as King Philip’s War) begins in New England, New York’s Governor designates a Mahican area east of the Hudson on the Hoosic River as refuge for the Eastern Indians fleeing the war. The village, some fifteen miles northeast of Albany, becomes known as Schaghticoke.
Connecticut-New York Boundary Agreement giving New York ‘twenty miles’ eastward from the Hudson plus an offset along Connecticut’s western boundary equal to the 61,440 acres of land along the Sound that Connecticut settled within New York bounds, is completed. The document is sent to England for ratification by the crown. (It will not be ratified until 1700.)
Schaghticoke Tribe first described by Europeans as inhabiting lands in northwestern Connecticut and eastern New York.
“[T]he Schaghticoke were a distinct Nation from the other Five [Nations] and live at the head of Hudson’s River above Albany.”
~ Governor Bellomont, April 1700
The tribe asks for a new settlement at Schaghticoke during an Indian conference in July. This request is granted, and by the next year there are two distinct groups of Schaghticoke in New York – one at Schaghticoke and one within the Housatonic River watershed. The latter’s descendants become known as the Schaghticoke in Kent.
In August 1722, the Schaghticoke are still in the Ten Mile River Valley when New York Governor William Burnet holds a conference with them in Albany, at which they ask for help against deed encroachment…
“His Excellency told the River Indians that he was well satisfied with their renewing the Covenant Chain & charged them to keep it inviolable to all the Subjects in North America & assured them if they behaved themselves well & did no injury to the Christians, they needed not fear any harm done to them & if they suffered any Damage by any private Person they should complain & justice should be done to them as well as to the Christians.”
~ Secretary Philip Livingston
The boundary resolution between the New York and Connecticut colonies stalls once again when New York runs out of money to finish running the line drawn by New York Surveyor General Cadwallader Colden.
Gideon Mauwee, the first recorded Sachem of the Schaghticoke Tribe, signs deed to large tract of land.
On September 3rd, Ridgefield, Connecticut landowners with Thomas Hawley and prominent New Yorkers attempt to resolve the dispute by petitioning the New York City Council for a grant of 50,000 acres in return for funding the survey to run the line.
The boundary line is drawn in the spring of 1731, and the Hawley Patents were organized into four tracts divided into two tiers totaling eighty lots and three blank areas – one in the Taconic Mountains opposite Salisbury, CT, another in today’s Dover, and a third opposite Danbury, CT.
While deciding what to do with its remaining western lands, Connecticut’s inspection of the goodness or badness of the “lands of record” is stopped and by May 1732 the colony discusses laying out and disposing of the Country Lands west of the Housatonic. Salisbury and lands on the west side of the Housatonic River had become Country Lands.
In May, Connecticut noted Indians who sometimes lived in New Milford were allowed to remain on the sweep of the Ten Mile River around the Dover Hove Out. Schaghticoke population includes approximately 100 warriors. General Assembly identifies land on the west side of Housatonic River as a Reserve for the Tribe, stipulating that white colonists cannot buy or sell the land.
The township of Kent, Connecticut was settled east of the Housatonic River and annexed to Hartford County. A notable land transaction that refers to the Schaghticoke tribe at Kent occurred in 1741, when Sachem Mauwehue signed a deed selling two hundred acres to Colonel John Read.
Shortly after white settlers established the Town of Kent, Schaghticoke population estimated at 500-600.
Maweho and other Indians of Schaticook sell to John Read 200 acres of land on Stratford River.
Moravian missionaries build a church and school at Schaghticoke. Within a decade, Connecticut’s General Assembly changed the Oblong further by annexing the Colony Lands west of Kent to Kent with no alteration of fee or property in May of 1743. In December, the eastern precinct lines of Dutchess County were extended over the Oblong to pay for the building of a jail in Poughkeepsie.
The Connecticut General Assembly divided the lands west of the Housatonic. The Schaghticoke petitioned for land and the colony granted them wood and timber from the 25th lot and ½ of Lot 24 for their own use. The Lot N 25 contained “thirteen hundred Acres of land inclusive of the land Sequestred for the Use of the Indians and Exclusive of the Sequestred land aforesaid is a Rocky Mountain and noway Sufficient for A farm.” The 25th lot had two parts; the other portion was a “rocky mount” of Connecticut land west of the jurisdictional line with New York.
In the spring, Connecticut divides the lands west of the Housatonic, opposite Kent, into twenty-five lots. The Schaghticoke petition for land but the General Assembly gives them wood and timber from the 25th lot and ½ of lot 24 for their own use.
General Assembly sets aside a parcel of land to supplement the Tribe’s Reservation. Around the middle of 1752 the Schaghticoke seek legal advice regarding their behavior in Connecticut. The Moravian Brothers offer to see a New York attorney for them to answer their questions regarding the land issue. The attorney informs the brethren and sisters that all the Indians are subject to the law of the Connecticut government, and thus have to “conduct themselves nice and quietly on all occasions, and in accordance with the laws of this place, for the sake of [their] conscience, not for fear of punishment.”
Connecticut had claimed the Schaghticoke, answering the Lords for Trade and Plantations regarding their Indians by saying no Indians bordered Connecticut; the nearest were the Six Nations who live in the Province of New York. During times of war in 1756, 1759, and 1762, the Schaghticoke remain allied with New York, enlisting and reporting to Poughkeepsie and Albany and serving at such locations as Saratoga, Crown Point and Albany.
The Tribe requests an overseer; Connecticut appoints Jabez Swift Overseer, who is endorsed by the Moravian Brethren.
Brother Eberhardt records that Pratt has, in fact, measured out for himself three-quarters rather than one-half of the 1,000 acres of lot 24, and furthermore, that Sherman and Adams have re-surveyed the line, transferring an additional 100 acres of land to the Indians. The Connecticut General Assembly appoints Jabez Swift Overseer at the request of the Tribe and endorsement by the Moravian Missionaries. Privately, Overseer Jabez Swift reports to Moravian Brother Jungmann that he has assumed guardianship over the tribe.
New York’s right to tax the Hawley Patentees is documented in a 1761 Quit Rent Assessment, which shows assessment for the 80 lotts of the Oblong only. (The Schaghticoke were still making basket rounds into the Ten Mile River Valley a century later. Even after the Christian Indians were driven out by the colony, the Schaghticoke of Connecticut continued to make their annual excursions through the valleys of Amenia till after the beginning of the 19th century.)
Schaghticoke men join the Continental Army, serving as scouts, signal corps, and soldiers in the Revolutionary War.
United States Constitution is enabled, and requires the Union to uphold the “treaty” between the king and Indians who had been under the protection of the Crown.
United States Congress passes the Non-Intercourse Act, which stipulates Congressional control over sale of Indian lands.
Schaghticoke Benjamin Chickens started a farm only to be forced to leave in 1800 when Connecticut sold the reservation’s north end (the General Assembly reimbursed Chickens with $100).
The Schaghticoke were still making basket rounds into the Ten Mile River Valley. A local historian had written that ‘even after the Christian Indians were driven out by the colony, the Schaghticoke of Connecticut continued to make their annual excursions through the valleys of Dover and Amenia till after the beginning of the 19th century.
The Indian reservation in Connecticut has been reduced to less than 3 miles in length due to land sales, but Schaghticoke woman Sophia Rice acquires more than that by owning land across the boundary line that New York runs alone by that time. Rice’s wealth is mentioned in New York’s 1870 census. After Tribal overseers sell off much of the Tribe’s land, Reservation dwindles to several hundred mountainous acres and a resident population less than 100.
A purchase of Schaghticoke land is thwarted, indicating that while Schaghticoke claims have faded from view, they have not disappeared. (In early 1900s, New Milford Power Company signs 99 year lease for land and builds dam, flooding Tribal burial grounds.)
Schaghticoke Indians enumerated as Federal Indian Tribe on Federal Census.
Benton MacKaye encounters jurisdictional issues when attempting to run the Appalachian Trail through a portion of the Taconic Mountains. While serving as chairman of the Taconic State Park Commission, Franklin D. Roosevelt concludes that the New York map of the proposed and acquired State Parkland in the Taconic Hove Out is dubious. It is a full decade later before Connecticut’s remaining Indian tribes are transferred to the jurisdiction of Parks and Forest.
Connecticut Park and Forest Department assumes responsibility over Reservation from individual overseers.
Indian Reorganization Act
United States opens Appalachian Trail on Schaghticoke land.
State transfers jurisdiction to Welfare Department.
Schaghticoke Tribe files unsuccessful land claim with Indian Claims Commission.
Opportunity to take jurisdictional control of Indian Tribes from Federal Government begins per Public Law 83-280 enabling states to assume the federal government’s role and acquire jurisdiction over Indian matters.
Welfare Department refuses to provide funds to repair tribal members’ homes, and instead burns all but two residences on the Reservation.
Creation of Connecticut Indian Affairs Commission spearheaded by Schaghticoke Chief Irving Harris. Schaghticoke Tribe forms a corporation.
Public Act 660, enacted in 1973 provided that: “It is hereby declared the policy of the state of Connecticut to recognize that all resident Indians of qualified Connecticut tribes are considered to be full citizens of the state and they are hereby granted all the rights and privileges afforded by the law, that all of Connecticut’s citizens enjoy.”
Schaghticoke Tribe file claim for Kent School lands in U.S. District Court.
Schaghticoke Tribe files Letter of Intent to file for federal recognition with the BIA.
The United States of America and Appalachian Trail Conference continue acquisition of lands on the East Mountain/Schaghticoke Mountain area in Town of Dover, New York. This is old Hove Out land.
Appalachian Trail plans to widen the trail over Schaghticoke Mountain and initiates a taking of 47.43 acres of Tribal land near the Rattlesnake Den. The Tribe sues the Appalachian Trail in Federal Court under Judge Dorsey.
Judge Dorsey takes up the Schaghticoke cause, but eventually rules that Federal Court cannot resolve the case because the Schaghticoke Tribe has already submitted its Letter of Intent to file for Federal Recognition.
Richard L. Velky elected Chief of the Schaghticoke Tribe.
The tribal constitution is revised and the tribe is known as Schaghticoke Tribal Nation of Kent (STN), Connecticut.
Federal Recognition Petition delivered to the BIA’s Branch of Acknowledgment and Research.
BIA deems Schaghticoke Tribal Nation’s petition Ready for Active Consideration.
New land claims filed in U.S. District Court.
U.S. District Court refuses to undertake judicial determination of tribal status; Nation requests reconsideration. Schaghticoke Tribal Nation requests resolution through alternative dispute resolution.
Schaghticoke Tribal Nation dealt a setback in recognition effort. BIA rules in a preliminary decision that the tribe has met five of the seven criteria for federal recognition. Tribe begins organizing thousands of pages of additional information to submit to BIA.
Schaghticoke Tribal Nation (STN) is recognized by the federal government.
In January, Connecticut’s Attorney General Richard Blumenthal writes a letter to President George W. Bush demanding the firing of BIA Assistant Secretary David Anderson.
On February 12, David Anderson resigns from his BIA/Assistant Secretary position and Gale Norton issues an order that James Cason shall assume all of the duties of the BIA/Assistant Secretary upon Anderson’s resignation.
On May 13, the Interior Board of Indian Appeals (IBIA) remands the case to the BIA staff to reconsider technical issues and evidence regarding endogenous marriage rates and State recognition.
On July 7, the U.S. District Court orders that the Nation shall be permitted to submit additional supportive evidence and information regarding endogenous marriage rates.
On August 12, the Nation submits a 30-page Memorandum of Law regarding marriage rate documentation.
On October 12, the BIA rescinds the Nation’s federal recognition status submitting to unprecedented, relentless, and undue political, lobbying, and other outside influence.
On November 10, Lynn Scarlett is confirmed as Deputy Secretary/DOI replacing James Steven Griles, who was undergoing criminal prosecution for corruption and conspiracy.
Memorandum in support of the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation’s Motion For Summary Judgement, Schaghticoke Tribal Nation v. Dirk Kempthorne, Sec. Dept. of Interior.
Ruling by U.S. district court judge Peter Dorsey, CT, on Cross Motions for Summary of Judgement.
Ruling Schaghticoke Tribal Nation v Dirk Kempthorne et al. (U.S Court of Appeals for the Second District). U.S. Supreme Court questions authority of the U.S. Department of the Interior to take lands into federal trusts for tribes recognized after 1934 – the “Carcieri decision.”
Petition for Writ of Certiori, Schaghticoke Tribal Nation v Dirk Kempthorne, et al. Petition denied. Justice Sotomayer took no part in the consideration or decision of this petition
Interior Department approves taking land in trust for the Cowlitz tribe saying it can show it was under federal jurisdiction on and before 1934.
June 21st, Bureau of Indian Affairs Department of the Interior releases The Discussion Draft. This is a preliminary precursor to the rulemaking process and is intended to provide tribes and the public an early opportunity to provide input on potential improvements to the Part 83 process. (REVISIONS TO REGULATIONS ON FEDERAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF INDIAN TRIBES (25 CFR 83 OR “PART 83″). July 31st, Chief Richard Velky makes STN presentation at Sockalexis Arena, Indian Island, Maine at the Tribal Consultation Meeting for the discussion to make REVISIONS TO REGULATIONS ON FEDERAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF INDIAN TRIBES (25 CFR 83 OR “PART 83″).
On May 22, the Department of the Interior proposes reform of the Federal Acknowledgment Process, requiring evidence of political influence and authority of the tribe only from as late as 1934, and giving third parties veto power over tribes seeking reconsideration of their petitions, which presents a challenge for Schaghticoke Tribal Nation.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs issued new rules saying that tribes which have previously been denied federal recognition cannot re-petition. Schaghticoke Tribal Nation will continue its mission to have their recognition restored.